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BACK                                                          Energy and Matter

I  Energy
    A. 
capacity to do work or produce heat.
    B. forms
        1. radiant 
             
a.  oscillating electric and magnetic fields
              b.  produce waves - perpendicular to the fields.
        2.  kinetic
              a.  energy of motion
              b.  mechanical - moving parts
              c.  thermal - random internal motion of particles of matter
        3. potential
              a.  energy of position
              b.  chemical - arrangement of particles 
              c.  electrical - different electrical charges
    C.  measuring energy
        1.  calorie
              a.  amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1g of water 1Celsius degree.
              b.  1 cal = 1g x 1Co
              c.  food - 1 Calorie = 1000 calorie = 1 kilocalorie
        2.  joule
              a.  SI unit
              b.  1 cal = 4.184 j
    D. Law of Conservation of Energy
        1.  energy is neither created nor destroyed.
        2.  can be transferred to another object or into another form
.

   
II  Temperature
    A.  Scales
        1.  Fahrenheit
              a. BP = 212 degrees
              b. FP = 32 degrees                    (F-32) x 5/9 =C
        2.  Celsius
              a. BP = 100 degrees
              b. FP = 0 degrees
        3.  Kelvin
              a.  SI
              b.  absolute zero - all motion (KINETIC ENERGY) ceases
              c.  0C + 273 = K


III  Matter
    A.  anything that has mass and volume.
    B.  states of matter
        1.  solid - particular shape and definite volume.   band
        2.  liquids - no particular shape but definite volume.   spectators
        3.  gas - no definite shape or volume.  Players
        4.  plasma - similar to gases but higher temperatures
    C. properties of matter
        1.  physical properties
              a.  observed without altering the identify
              b. density, color, melting point, etc.
        2.  chemical
              a.  cannot be observed without altering the substance
              b.  flammability
    D.  change in matter
        1.  physical changes
              a.  do not alter the identity
              b.  crushing, tearing, changes in state, melting, freezing
        2.  Chemical changes
              a.  alter the identity - properties change
              b.  burning, rusting, cooking
    E.  Conservation of Matter
        1.  cannot be created nor destroyed
        2.  equal quantity of matter before and after a change
.


IV  Elements and Compounds
    A.  Elements
        1.  substances that cannot be separated into simpler substances by a change.
        2.  names
              a.  based on properties
              b.  scientist
              c.  location
        3.  symbols
              a.  first letter of name
              b.  2 letters - first capitalized second lower case
              c.  sometimes based on Latin, Greek, or other language words.
        4.  organized into a periodic table of elements.
    B.  compounds
        1.  combination of two or more elements
        2.  have fixed proportions
        3.  identified by a chemical formula - combination of element symbol
   
C.  distinguishing between elements and compounds
        1.  pure substances
        2.  unique set of chemical and physical properties
        3.  compounds can be broken down into simpler substances
        4.  process - electrolysis


V  Mixtures
    A.  blend of two or more pure substances
    B.  retain original properties.
    C.  types
        1.  heterogeneous
              a.  see different parts - phases
              b.  granite, choc chip cookies
        2.  homogeneous
              a.  no visible parts - 1 phase
              b . air, solutions
    D.  separation
        1.  do not cause a chemical change.
        2.  filtration - heterogeneous mixtures - size
        3.  distillation, crystallization, and chromatography - homogeneous
              a.  uses differences in substances' properties - BP
              b.  evaporation - crystals form
               c.  rate of diffusion - mass







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